Manhan River Bacterial Source Tracking Project

Continuing, Comprehensive, and Cooperative Planning Process

Average Annual Daily Traffic

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

Average Daily Traffic

American Farmland Trust

Alternative Fuel Vehicles

American Heritage Rivers Initiative

American International College

Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

Approval Not Required

American Planning Association

Aquifer Protection District

Air Quality Index

Air Quality Index

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (of 2009)

Automatic Traffic Recorder

Average Vehicle Ridership

Barnes Aquifer Protection Advisory Committee

Business Improvement District

Bicycle Level of Service

Best Management Practice

Bridge Management System

Board of Appeals (or Adjustment)

Board of Health

Berkshire Regional Planning Commission

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Commercial Area Revitalization District

Community Action Statement

Central Business District

Cape Cod Commission

Cooperating Colleges of Greater Springfield

Community Development

Community Development Action Grant

Community Development Block Grant

Centers for Disease Control

Community Development Corporation

Community Development Fund

Community Development Plan

Community Economic Development Assistance Corporation

Community Economic Development Assistance Corporation

Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

Community Enterprise Economic Development

Citizen Housing and Planning Association

Community Housing Development Organizations

Capital Improvement Inventory System

Capital Improvements Plan (or Program)

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

Congestion Management Process

Central Massachusetts Regional Planning Commission

Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area

Compressed Natural Gas

Carbon Monoxide

Council of Governments

Commonwealth Procurement Access and Solicitation System

Community Preservation Act

Citizen Planner Training Collaborative

Capitol Region Council of Governments

Community Service Block Grant

Combined Sewer Overflow

Department of Conservation and Recreation

Department of Environmental Protection

Division of Employment and Training

Department of Housing and Community Development

Direct Local Technical Assistance

Department of Energy Resources

Department of Revenue

Department of Transportation

Department of Public Works

Developments of Regional Impact

Executive Order

Production of affordable housing across a broad range of incomes 

Economic Assistance Coordinating Council

Economic Development Administration

Economic Development Council

Economic Development District

Economic Development Data and Information System

Economic Development and Industrial Corporation

Environmental Impact Report

Environmental Impact Statement

Environmental Justice

Environmental Notification Form

Economic Opportunity Area

Executive Office of Administration and Finance

Executive Office of Economic Affairs

Executive Office of Elder Affairs

Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs

Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development

Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Site Assessment

Economic Target Area

Federal Aid

Functional Classification (of roadways)

Federal Housing Administration

Federal Highway Administration - An agency of the United States Department of Transportation that provides financial and technical support to each state for constructing, improving, and preserving America’s highway system.

Federal Highway Administration

Franklin Regional Council of Governments

Federal Transit Administration

Greenhouse Gas

Geographic Information System - A system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the earth.

Geographic Information System

Global Positioning System

Housing Appeal Committee


Holyoke Community College

Housing Development Support Program

Housing Innovation Fund

Home Modification for Individuals with Disabilities Loan

Highway Overlay District

Historic Overlay District

Homeownership Opportunities Program

High Occupancy Vehicle

Housing Preservation Grant

Housing Production Plan

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Invitation for Bid

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Job Access and Reverse Commute

Jacob's Ladder Scenic Byway

Jacob's Ladder Trail

Joint Transportation Committee

Local Board(s) of Health

Limited English Proficiency

Local Housing Authority

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program

Low Income Housing Tax Credit

Level of Service

Local Option Transportation Tax

Local Pavement Management System

Light Rail Vehicle

Local Technical Assistance

Massachusetts General Laws

Hazardous waste cleanup regulations

Uniform procurement law for local governments


Planning/comprehensive permits

Smart growth zoning and housing production

Smart growth school cost reimbursement

Subdivision control

Expedited permitting

Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century

Metropolitan Area Planning Council

Massachusetts Association of Regional Planning Agencies

Massachusetts Department of Transportation

Massachusetts Geographic Information System

Minority Business Enterprises

Massachusetts Development Finance Agency 

Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act

Massachusetts Geographic Information Council

Massachusetts Historical Commission 

Massachusetts Housing Partnership

Massachusetts Industrial Finance Agency

Municipal Incentive Grant

Massachusetts Municipal Association

Memorandum of Agreement

Massachusetts Office of Business Development

Massachusetts Office on Disability

Memorandum of Understanding

Metropolitan Planning Organization

Metropolitan Planning Organization

Montachusett Regional Planning Commission

Metropolitan Statistical Area

Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

Martha's Vineyard Commission

Merrimack Valley Planning Commission

Massachusetts Water Resources Authority

National Association of Regional Councils

New England Association of Regional Councils

Non-Federal Aid

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (as amended)

National Highway System

Neighborhood Housing Services program

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Northern Middlesex Council of Governments

Nitrogen Oxide

Nantucket Planning and Economic Development Commission

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 

National Trust for Historic Preservation

National Transportation Safety Board

Old Colony Planning Council

Overall Condition Index (Pavement)

Open Space and Recreation Plan

Pavement Condition Index

Priority Development Fund

Purchase of Development Rights

Peak Hour Traffic (or Trips)

Payment in Lieu of Taxes

[Metropolitan] Planning Funds

Pavement Management System 

Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area

Pavement Management Users Group

Planner on a Disc

Public Participation Process

Planned Unit Residential Development

Pioneer Valley Regional Brownfields Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund

Pioneer Valley Transit Authority

Quaboag Valley Community Development Corp.

Rental Development Action Loan

Regional Employment Board

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Request For Proposal

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Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

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Regional Transit Authority

Regional Technology Corporation

Regional Transportation Plan

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users

Small Business Administration

Supplier Diversity Office 

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Single Occupancy Vehicle

Special Permit

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Site Plan Review

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Single Room Occupancy

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Springfield Technical Community College

Statewide Transportation Improvement Program

Surface Transportation Program

Targeted Brownfields Assessment

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Transportation Improvement Program

The Literacy Project

Turning Movement Count

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Transportation Research Board

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Urban Growth Boundary

Urban Land Institute

University of Massachusetts

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U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Underground Storage Tanks

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Ware Adult Learning Center

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Women-owned Business Enterprises

Wellhead Protection Area

Western New England University

Water Quality Management Plan

Westfield River Watershed Association

Westfield River Wild & Scenic Advisory Committee

Water Supply Protection [District]

Westfield State University

Zoning Board of Adjustment (or Appeals)

The stretch of the Manhan River between the Tighe Carmody Reservoir and the Connecticut River is listed in the 2014 Massachusetts Integrated List of Impaired Waters as a Category 5 waterway impaired for E. coli contamination. The Manhan River is also a Class B water, designated as habitat for fish, aquatic life, and wildlife as well as primary and secondary recreation. The lower 6.2 miles, which run through the City of Easthampton, are listed as not supporting primary recreational uses due to E. coli contamination.

In prior years there was not a clear understanding about the individual factors that may be contributing to the E. coli impairment. MassDEP’s 2003 study noted that sources of potential contamination were unknown, and recommended further examination upstream.  Previous assessments for illicit discharges in Easthampton by the City (2001) did not test for pathogens, but many of the illicit discharge and cross-connection issues that were found – which may have been possible sources for E. coli contamination – were resolved. Prior to this project, upriver land uses have never been thoroughly investigated as potential sources of E. coli contamination. 

The study entailed collecting grab samples during 3 dry and 3 wet weather events. Wet weather for this study was considered >0.1” of rain within the preceding 24 hours.  This shorter time frame (as opposed to > 0.25 in 48 hours or >.5 in 72 hours) was intended to capture the more immediate impacts of stormwater flowing off nearby surfaces into local streams and outfalls into the river. Sampling for the 3 dry and 3 wet weather events occurred between July 12 and September 20, 2016, with a trained crew of nine volunteers.  Volunteers collected river water samples to be analyzed for E. coli, surfactant, and ammonia (NH3).  Volunteers also obtained air and water temperatures and recorded observations at each sampling site on field data sheets, including flow, odor, water color, signs of wildlife, and any other noteworthy observations during the time of sampling.   

Once the regular sampling events sampling were completed, PVPC staff examined results and prioritized those locations showing the greatest frequency of elevated E. coli levels not associated with anthropogenic sources in both wet and dry events. Sites showing elevated levels of E. coli without corresponding elevated ammonia and surfactant levels were prioritized. PVPC prepared working maps of sub-watershed areas to begin identifying best locations for source tracking relative to locations with elevated E. coli results.  Source tracking strategy was further informed by discussions with city and town officials. Based on this analysis, PVPC chose to source track above four sampling locations:  Moose Brook in Southampton (MBS2), Whittemore Conservation Area in Southampton (MRS10),N. Branch (Manhan River) in Southampton (NBS11), and Ft. Hill Road in Easthampton (MRE13). PVPC conducted multiple rounds of source tracking to identify the sources of E. coli to the extent possible. It should be noted that Potash Brook (PBS4) also showed consistent elevated levels of E. coli during dry and wet events, but it was not chosen for source tracking due to access issues. Due to the very dry summer of 2016, regular sampling was not completed until late September 2016. Therefore, source tracking was postponed until the summer of 2017.

Locations identified through source tracking as persistent problem E. coli areas were flagged as priority project locations for stakeholder outreach and education, and implementation of best management practices. 

Decreased runoff will reduce the rate of erosion as well as the movement of sediment and dissolved and sediment-attached substances to downstream watercourses.

To examine the possibility of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in addressing E. coli inputs at priority locations related to the Manhan River, PVPC solicited quotes from 13 qualified vendors identified through the Massachusetts Supplier Diversity Office, and received one response from a qualified vendor. PVPC used project funding to hire Shannon Rice-Nichols.  The consultant met with PVPC and municipal officials to review results and then conducted site visits in February and March, 2018.

The consultant analysis entailed a review of water quality results, information on existing drainage, soil infiltration characteristics, flood zones, and wetlands. She also reviewed land use, ownership, and conducted resource evaluations to identify sites where appropriate BMPs could be proposed. The consultant developed a summary of BMPs to reduce bacteria loading into the Manhan River and tributaries and talked with residents and town and city officials about preferred options. All solutions proposed were designed to be non-destructive to farm land, and not disruptive or discouraging for local land owners, but rather oriented towards achievable and implementable solutions.

A number of agricultural Best Management Practices, or BMPs, have been demonstrated effective in reducing or minimizing water quality impacts, as part of an overall watershed approach. Given site conditions and resources of concern identified through the project investigation, conservation buffers, grazing management, Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) Management, and Erosion and Sediment Control practices were selected for voluntary implementation by land owners in teh project area. 

While the majority of the findings from this investigating point towards agricultural and livestock land uses, it is important to keep in mind the increased development pressure currently placed on useable parcels along the Manhan and its tributaries in both Easthampton and Southampton. As historically agricultural use parcels are converted to residential and commercial uses, these communities should ensure that developers employ LID principles/techniques to reduce the negative impacts to water quality.

Throughout the course of the project, Pioneer Valley Planning Commission promoted its partnership and provided updates on the project through various media. There were also several specific events associated with this project to broaden the scope of outreach and education surrounding issues of water quality and agricultural BMPs for stormwater in the Manhan River Watershed. The opportunity provided through this project offered an enhanced awareness to local residents and local officials of the Manhan River’s ongoing impairment in Easthampton. The inclusion of Southampton sites also allowed the opportunity for residents and stakeholders to consider that E. coli contamination is not necessarily a problem only found in urban areas.

Assisting with sampling also allowed local residents a direct way to engage with the Manhan River.  On July 7, 2016, PVPC held an event at the Easthampton Municipal Building to talk about the Manhan River, project objectives, and train interested volunteers to collect samples for the 3 dry/3 wet weather events. 

This project was financed partially with federal funds from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) under a 604(b) Competitive Grant. For more information, contact

News and Articles

17 Jun

By Mary Serreze, Special to the Republican

June 17, 2016

EASTHAMPTON---Volunteers are sought to monitor water quality in the Manhan River between July and September of this year.